Leather crafting

Welcome to buy nike shox shoe, nike air max shoe, nike air huarache shoe from nike shox online store.

Leather crafting or simply Leathercraft is the practice of making leather into craft objects or works of art, using shaping techniques, coloring techniques or both.

Techniques
Dyeing

Leather dyeing usually involves the use of spirit- or alcohol-based dyes where alcohol quickly gets absorbed into moistened leather, carrying the pigment deep into the surface. “Hi-liters” and “Antiquing” stains can be used to add more definition to patterns. These have pigments that will break away from the higher points of a tooled piece and so pooling in the background areas give nice contrasts. Leaving parts unstained also provides a type of contrast.

Alternatives to spirit stains might include a number of options. Shoe polish can be used to dye and preserve leather. Oils such as neatsfoot or linseed can be applied to preserve leather but darkens them. A wax paste more often than not serves as the final coat.

Sweat and grime will also stain and ‘antique’ leather over time. Gun holsters, saddlebags, wallets and canteens used by cowboys and buckaroos were rarely colored in the Old West. The red, brown, and black tones develop naturally through handling and as the oiled leathers absorb the rays of the desert sun.

Due to changing environmental laws, alcohol-based dyes are soon to be unavailable. when? where? There are currently water-based alternatives available, although they tend not to work as well.

Painting
Leather painting differs from leather dyeing in that paint remains only on the surface while dyes are absorbed into the leather. Due to this difference, leather painting techniques are generally not used on items that can or must bend nor on items that receive friction, such as belts and wallets because under these conditions, the paint is likely to crack and flake off. However, latex paints can be used to paint such flexible leather items. In the main though, a flat piece of leather, backed with a stiff board is ideal and common, though three-dimensional forms are possible so long as the painted surface remains secured.

Acrylic paint is a common medium, often painted on tooled leather pictures, backed with wood or cardboard, and then framed. Unlike photographs, leather paintings are displayed without a glass cover, to prevent mold.

Carving
Main article: Leather carving
Leather carving entails using metal implements to compress moistened leather in such a way as to give a three-dimensional appearance to a two-dimensional surface. The surface of the leather is not intended to be cut through, as would be done in filigree.

The main tools used to “carve” leather include: swivel knife, veiner, beveler, pear shader, seeder, cam, and background tool. The swivel knife is held similar to pencil and drawn along the leather to outline patterns. The other tools are punch-type implements struck with a wooden, nylon or rawhide mallet. The object is to add further definition with them to the cut lines made by the swivel knife.

In the United States and Mexico, the western floral style, known as “Sheridan Style”, of carving leather predominates. Usually, these are stylized pictures of acanthis or roses. California, Texas, and a few other styles are common. By far the most preeminent carver in the United States was Al Stohlman. His patterns and methods have been embraced by many hobbyists, scout troops, reenacters, and craftsmen.

Stamping
Leather stamping involves the use of shaped implements (stamps) to create an imprint onto a leather surface, often by striking the stamps with a mallet.

Commercial stamps are available in various designs, typically geometric or representative of animals. Most stamping is performed on vegetable tanned leather that has been dampened with water, as the water makes the leather softer and able to be compressed by the design being pressed or stamped into it using a press. After the leather has been stamped, the design stays on the leather as it dries out, but it can fade if the leather becomes wet and is flexed. To make the impressions last longer, the leather is conditioned with oils and fats to make it waterproof and prevent the fibers from deforming.

Molding/Shaping
Leather shaping or molding consists of soaking a piece of leather in hot or room temperature water to greatly increase pliability and then shaping it by hand or with the use of objects or even molds as forms. As the leather dries it stiffens and holds its shape. Carving and stamping may be done prior to molding. Dying however must take place after molding, as the water soak will remove much of the color. Molding has become popular among hobbyists whose crafts are related to fantasy, goth/steampunk culture and cosplay.

Two well known pieces of molded leather are part of the funerary achievements of Edward, the Black Prince, the heraldic crest and shield.
Laser cutting/etching
Carbon dioxide lasers cut through leather very smoothly, and at low power a laser cutter can etch detailed designs into leather to any desired depth.

Perforation
Perforation (Latin perforo -.. Knocking) – the result of punching that is provided for the manufacture of a large number of regularly arranged apertures of regular shape in the sheet and other material. A decorative technique that is used to connect two sheets of leather or to decorate them.

Pyrography
Pyrography(purogravure) on leather is the art with using a hot needle to make a drawing on leather. Under the influence of heat the leather gets darker shades which subsequently become a complete picture. One of the best ways to transfer complex patterns such as portraits.

Leather production processes

Welcome to buy nike shox shoe, nike air max shoe, nike air huarache shoe from nike shox online store.

The leather manufacturing process is divided into three sub-processes: preparatory stages, tanning and crusting. All true leathers will undergo these sub-processes. A further sub-process, surface coating may be added into the sequence. The list of operations that leathers undergo vary with the type of leather.

Production management
The leather making process is in general restricted to batch processing, but if the surface coating sub-process is added then some continuous processing can be included. The operation flow has to follow the preparatory → tanning → crusting → surface coating sub-process order without deviation, but some of the sub-processes can be omitted to make certain leathers (or partially tanned/ untanned products).

Preparatory stages
The preparatory stages are when the hide/skin is prepared for tanning. During the preparatory stages many of the unwanted raw skin components are removed. Many options for pretreatment of the skin exist. Not all of the options may be performed. Preparatory stages may include:

preservation- the hide/skin is treated with a method which renders it temporarily imputrescible.
soaking – water for purposes of washing or rehydration is reintroduced.
liming – unwanted proteins and “opening up” is achieved.
unhairing – the majority of hair is removed.
fleshing – subcutaneous material is removed.
splitting – the hide/skin is cut into two or more horizontal layers.
reliming – the hide/skin is further treated to achieve more “opening up” or more protein removal.
deliming – liming and unhairing chemicals are removed from the pelt.
bating – proteolytic proteins are introduced to the skin to remove further proteins and to assist with softening of the pelt.
degreasing – natural fats/oils are stripped or as much as is possible from the hide/skin.
frizing – physical removal of the fat layer inside the skin. Also similar to Slicking.
bleaching – chemical modification of dark pigments to yield a lighter coloured pelt.
pickling – lowering of the pH value to the acidic region. Must be done in the presence of salts. Pickling is normally done to help with the penetration of certain tanning agents, e.g., chromium (and other metals), aldehydic and some polymeric tanning agents
depickling – raising of the pH out of the acidic region to assist with penetration of certain tanning agents

Tanning
Tanning is the process that converts the protein of the raw hide or skin into a stable material which will not putrefy and is suitable for a wide variety of end applications. The principal difference between raw hides and tanned hides is that raw hides dry out to form a hard inflexible material that can putrefy when re-wetted (wetted back), while tanned material dries out to a flexible form that does not become putrid when wetted back. A large number of different tanning methods and materials can be used; the choice is ultimately dependent on the end application of the leather. The most commonly used tanning material is chromium, which leaves the leather, once tanned, a pale blue colour (due to the chromium), this product is commonly called “wet blue”.

The acidity of hides once they have finished pickling will typically be between pH of 2.8-3.2. At this point the hides are loaded in a drum and immersed in a float containing the tanning liquor. The hides are allowed to soak (while the drum slowly rotates about its axle) and the tanning liquor slowly penetrates through the full substance of the hide. Regular checks will be made to see the penetration by cutting the cross section of a hide and observing the degree of penetration. Once an even degree of penetration is observed, the pH of the float is slowly raised in a process called basification. This basification process fixes the tanning material to the leather, and the more tanning material fixed, the higher the hydrothermal stability and increased shrinkage temperature resistance of the leather. The pH of the leather when chrome tanned would typically finish somewhere between 3.8-4.2.

Crusting
Crusting is when the hide/skin is thinned, retanned and lubricated. Often a coloring operation is included in the crusting sub-process. The chemicals added during crusting have to be fixed in place. The culmination of the crusting sub-process is the drying and softening operations. Crusting may include the following operations:

wetting back – semi-processed leather is rehydrated.
sammying – 45-55%(m/m) water is squeezed out the leather.
splitting – the leather is split into one or more horizontal layers.
shaving – the leather is thinned using a machine which cuts leather fibres off.
neutralisation – the pH of the leather is adjusted to a value between 4.5 and 6.5.
retanning – additional tanning agents are added to impart properties.
dyeing – the leather is coloured.
fatliquoring – fats/oils and waxes are fixed to the leather fibres.
filling – heavy/dense chemicals that make the leather harder and heavier are added.
stuffing – fats/oils and waxes are added between the fibres.
stripping – superficially fixed tannins are removed.
whitening – the colour of the leather is lightened.
fixation – all unbound chemicals are chemically bonded/trapped or removed from the leather
setting – area, grain flatness are imparted and excess water removed.
drying – the leather is dried to various moisture levels (commonly 14-25%).
conditioning – water is added to the leather to a level of 18-28%.
softening – physical softening of the leather by separating the leather fibres.
buffing – abrasion of the surfaces of the leather to reduce nap or grain defects.
Surface coating
For some leathers a surface coating is applied. Tanners refer to this as finishing. Finishing operations may include:

oiling
brushing
padding
impregnation
buffing
spraying
roller coating
curtain coating
polishing
plating
embossing
ironing
combing (hair-on)
glazing
Environmental impact
In addition to the other environmental impacts of leather, the production processes have a high environmental impact, most notably due to:

the heavy use of polluting chemicals in the tanning process
air pollution due to the transformation process (hydrogen sulfide during dehairing and ammonia during deliming, solvent vapours).
One tonne of hide or skin generally leads to the production of 20 to 80 m3 of turbid and foul-smelling wastewater, including chromium levels of 100–400 mg/L, sulfide levels of 200–800 mg/L and high levels of fat and other solid wastes, as well as notable pathogen contamination. Pesticides are also often added for hide conservation during transport. With solid wastes representing up to 70% of the wet weight of the original hides, the tanning process comes at a considerable strain on water treatment installations.

Tanning is especially polluting in countries where environmental norms are lax, such as in India – the world’s 3d largest producer and exporter of leather. To give an example of an efficient pollution prevention system, chromium loads per produced tonne are generally abated from 8 kg to 1.5 kg. VOC emissions are typically reduced from 30 kg/t to 2 kg/t in a properly managed facility. Very clearly, the process remains highly polluting all the same. A review of the total pollution load decrease achievable according to the United Nations Industrial Development Organization posts precise data on the abatement achievable through industrially proven low-waste advanced methods, while noting that « Even though the chrome pollution load can be decreased by 94% on introducing advanced technologies, the minimum residual load 0.15 kg/t raw hide can still cause difficulties when using landfills and composting sludge from wastewater treatment on account of the regulations currently in force in some countries. »

In Kanpur, the self-proclaimed “Leather City of World” and a city of 3 million people on the banks of the river Ganges, pollution levels were so high that, despite an industry crisis, the pollution control board has decided to seal 49 high-polluting tanneries out of 404 in July 2009. In 2003 for instance, the main tannery’s effluent disposal unit was dumping 22 tonnes of chromium-laden solid waste per day in the open.

The higher cost associated to the treatment of effluents as compared to untreated effluent discharging leads to environmental dumping to reduce costs. For instance, in Croatia in 2001, proper pollution abatment cost 70-100 USD/t of raw hides processed against 43 USD/t for irresponsible behaviour.

No general study seems to exist, but the current news is rife with documented examples of untreated effluent discharge. In November 2009 for instance, it was discovered that one of Uganda’s main leather producing companies directly dumped its waste water in a wetland adjacent to Lake Victoria.

From other animals – Leather

Welcome to buy nike shox shoe, nike air max shoe, nike air huarache shoe from nike shox online store.

Today, most leather is made of cattle skin, but many exceptions exist. Lamb and deerskin are used for soft leather in more expensive apparel. Deer and elkskin are widely used in work gloves and indoor shoes. Pigskin is used in apparel and on seats of saddles. Buffalo, goat, alligator, snake, ostrich, kangaroo, ox, and yak skins may also be used for leather.

Kangaroo leather is used to make items that must be strong and flexible. It is the material most commonly used in bullwhips. Some motorcyclists favor kangaroo leather for motorcycle leathers because of its light weight and abrasion resistance. Kangaroo leather is also used for falconry jesses, soccer footwear, and boxing speed bags. At different times in history, leather made from more exotic skins has been considered desirable. For this reason, certain species of snakes and crocodiles have been hunted.

Although originally raised for their feathers in the 19th century, ostriches are now more popular for both meat and leather. Different processes produce different finishes for many applications, i.e., upholstery, footwear, automotive products, accessories, and clothing. Ostrich leather is currently used by many major fashion houses such as Hermès, Prada, Gucci, and Louis Vuitton. Ostrich leather has a characteristic “goose bump” look because of the large follicles where the feathers grew.

In Thailand, stingray leather is used in wallets and belts. Sting ray leather is tough and durable. The leather is often dyed black and covered with tiny round bumps in the natural pattern of the back ridge of an animal. These bumps are then usually dyed white to highlight the decoration. Stingray rawhide is also used as grips on Chinese swords, Scottish basket hilted swords, and Japanese katanas. Stingray leather is also used for high abrasion areas in motorcycle racing leathers (especially in gloves, where its high abrasion resistance helps prevent wear through in the event of an accident.)

Types of Leather

Welcome to buy nike shox shoe, nike air max shoe, nike air huarache shoe from nike shox online store.

In general, leather is sold in these four forms:

Full-grain leather refers to hides that have not been sanded, buffed, or snuffed (as opposed to top-grain or corrected leather) to remove imperfections (or natural marks) on the surface of the hide. The grain remains allowing the fiber strength and durability. The grain also has breathability, resulting in less moisture from prolonged contact. Rather than wearing out, it develops a patina during its expected useful lifetime. High quality leather furniture and footwear are often made from full-grain leather. Full-grain leathers are typically available in two finish types: aniline, semi-aniline.
Top-grain leather (the most common type in high-end leather products) is the second-highest quality. It has had the “split” layer separated away, making it thinner and more pliable than full-grain. Its surface has been sanded and a finish coat added, which produces a colder, plastic feel with less breathability, and it does not develop a natural patina. It is typically less expensive and has greater stain resistance than full-grain leather if the finish remains unbroken.
Corrected-grain leather is any leather that has had an artificial grain applied to its surface. The hides used to create corrected leather do not meet the standards for use in creating vegetable-tanned or aniline leather. The imperfections are corrected or sanded off, and an artificial grain embossed into the surface and dressed with stain or dyes. Most corrected-grain leather is used to make pigmented leather as the solid pigment helps hide the corrections or imperfections. Corrected grain leathers can mainly be bought as two finish types: semi-aniline and pigmented.
Split leather is leather created from the fibrous part of the hide left once the top-grain of the rawhide has been separated from the hide. During the splitting operation, the top-grain and drop split are separated. The drop split can be further split (thickness allowing) into a middle split and a flesh split. In very thick hides, the middle split can be separated into multiple layers until the thickness prevents further splitting. Split leather then has an artificial layer applied to the surface of the split and is embossed with a leather grain (bycast leather). Splits are also used to create suede. The strongest suedes are usually made from grain splits (that have the grain completely removed) or from the flesh split that has been shaved to the correct thickness. Suede is “fuzzy” on both sides. Manufacturers use a variety of techniques to make suede from full-grain. A reversed suede is a grained leather that has been designed into the leather article with the grain facing away from the visible surface. It is not considered a true suede.[3]
Less-common leathers include:

Buckskin or brained leather is a tanning process that uses animal brains or other fatty materials to alter the leather. The resulting supple, suede-like hide is usually smoked heavily to prevent it from returning to a rawhide state, if wetted. It is easier to soften, and helps repel leather-eating bugs.
Patent leather is leather that has been given a high-gloss finish. Inventor Seth Boyden developed the original process in Newark, New Jersey in 1818. Patent leather usually has a plastic coating.
Fish leather is popular for its motifs and its pigmentation. Mainly used for making shoes and bags, the fish skin is tanned like other animal skins.[4] The species used include salmon, perch, sturgeon, etc.
Salmon : farmed in Iceland and Norway, salmon skin has fine scales. Its strength and elegant look make it the most popular fish leather.
Perch : from the Nile, its skin is recognizable with large, round and soft scales
Wolffish : smooth, without scales, with dark spots, and stripes due to the friction of marine rocks
Cod : finer scales than salmon, but more varied texture, sometimes smooth and sometimes rough
Sturgeon : known for its eggs (caviar), its leather is quite expensive
Eel : without scales, its skin is shiny
Tilapia : originally from Africa and farmed in many places, tilapia leather is beautiful, with resistant qualities similar to salmon and perch[5]
Shagreen is also known as stingray skin/leather. Applications used in furniture production date as far back as the art deco period. The word “shagreen” originates from France. It is known as the most difficult leather to work due to dished scales of the animal, and it is one of the most expensive leathers.
Shark is covered with small, close-set tubercles, making it very tough. Shark skin handbags were once in vogue, but interest has fallen as the material and production costs is very high. Moreover, this skin is more difficult to work. (Do not confuse with sharkskin, a woven textile product.
Vachetta leather is used in the trimmings of luggage and handbags. The leather is left untreated and is therefore susceptible to water and stains. Sunlight makes the natural leather darken in shade (develop a patina).
Slink is leather made from the skin of unborn calves. It is particularly soft and is valued for making gloves.
Deerskin is a tough, water-resistant leather, possibly due to the animal’s adaptations to its thorny and thicket-filled habitats.[citation needed] Deerskin has been used by many societies, including indigenous Americans. Most modern deerskin is no longer procured from the wild, with deer farms breeding the animals specifically for the purpose of their skins. Large quantities are still tanned from wild deer hides in historic tanning towns such as Gloversville and Johnstown in upstate New York. Deerskin is used in jackets and overcoats, martial arts equipment such as kendo bogu, as well as personal accessories such as handbags and wallets.
Goatskin is soft but tough, and is used for items such as thorn-resistant gardener’s gloves.
Nubuck is top-grain cattle hide leather that has been sanded or buffed on the grain side, or outside, to give a slight nap of short protein fibers, producing a velvet-like surface.
Russia leather is a particular form of bark-tanned cow leather. It is distinguished by an oiling step, after tanning, where birch oil is worked into the leather to make it particularly hard-wearing, flexible and resistant to water.
There are two other types of leather commonly used in specialty products, such as briefcases, wallets, and luggage:

Belting leather is a full-grain leather originally used in driving pulley belts and other machinery. It is found on the surface of briefcases, portfolios, and wallets, and can be identified by its thick, firm feel and smooth finish. Belting leather is generally a heavy-weight of full-grain, vegetable-tanned leather.
Napa leather is chrome-tanned and is soft and supple. It is commonly found in wallets, toiletry kits, and other personal leather goods.
The following are not “true” organic leathers, but are materials that contain leather fiber. Depending on jurisdiction, they may still be labeled as “Genuine Leather”, even though the consumer generally can only see the outer layer of the material and can’t actually see any of the leather content:

Bonded leather or reconstituted leather is an economical material that uses leftover organic leather (from tanneries or workshops) that are shredded and bonded together with polyurethane or latex on to a fiber sheet. The varying degree of organic leather in the mix (10% to 90%) affects the smell and texture. Its reduced cost makes it popular for furniture upholstery, especially for commercial furniture that requires durability—though durability can vary widely depending on the formulation.
Bycast leather is a split leather with a layer of polyurethane laminated to the surface and then embossed. Bycast was originally made for the shoe industry, and later adopted by the furniture industry. The original formula created by Bayer was strong but expensive. The result is a material that is slightly stiffer but cheaper than top-grain leather but has a much more consistent texture. Because its surface is completely covered in plastic, is easier to clean and maintain, but is not easily repaired.

Forms of Leather

Welcome to buy nike shox shoe, nike air max shoe, nike air huarache shoe from nike shox online store.

Several tanning processes transform hides and skins into leather:

Chrome-tanned leather, invented in 1858, is tanned using chromium sulfate and other chromium salts. It is more supple and pliable than vegetable-tanned leather and does not discolor or lose shape as drastically in water as vegetable-tanned. It is also known as wet-blue for its color derived from the chromium. More exotic colors are possible when using chrome tanning. The chrome tanning method usually only takes a day to finish, and the ease and agility of this method make it a popular choice. However there are environmental concerns with this tanning method. It is reported that chrome-tanned leather adds up to 80% of the global leather supply.
Vegetable-tanned leather is tanned using tannins and other ingredients found in different vegetable matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills, wood, leaves, fruits, and roots. It is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of chemicals and the color of the skin. It is the only form of leather suitable for use in leather carving or stamping. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water; it tends to discolor, so if left to soak and then dried it shrinks and becomes harder. This is a feature of oak bark tanned leather that is exploited in traditional shoemaking. In hot water, it shrinks drastically and partly congeals—becoming rigid, and eventually brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this, where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, or in boiled wax or similar substances. Historically, it was occasionally used as armour after hardening, and it has also been used for book binding.
Aldehyde-tanned leather is tanned using glutaraldehyde or oxazolidine compounds. This is the leather that most tanners refer to as wet-white leather due to its pale cream or white color. It is the main type of “chrome-free” leather, often seen in shoes for infants and automobiles.
Formaldehyde tanning (being phased out due to danger to workers and sensitivity of many people to formaldehyde) is another aldehyde tanning method. Brain-tanned leathers fall into this category, and are exceptionally water absorbent.
Brain tanned leathers are made by a labor-intensive process that uses emulsified oils, often those of animal brains such as deer, cattle, and buffaloes. They are known for their exceptional softness and washability.
Chamois leather also falls into the category of aldehyde tanning, and like brain tanning, produces a porous and highly water-absorbent leather. Chamois leather is made using marine oils (traditionally cod oil) that oxidize easily to produce the aldehydes that tan the leather to color it.
Rose-tanned leather is a variation of vegetable oil tanning and brain tanning, where pure rose otto replaces the vegetable oil and emulsified oils. Rose-tanned leather tanned leaves a powerful rose fragrance even years from when it is manufactured. It has been called the most valuable leather on earth, but this is mostly due to the high cost of rose otto and its labor-intensive tanning process.
Synthetic-tanned leather is tanned using aromatic polymers such as the Novolac or Neradol types (syntans, contraction for synthetic tannins). This leather is white in color and was invented when vegetable tannins were in short supply during the Second World War. Melamine and other amino-functional resins fall into this category, as well, and they provide the filling that modern leathers often require. Urea-formaldehyde resins were also used in this tanning method before people realized the hazards that formaldehyde presents to tanners and consumers.
Alum-tanned leather is transformed using aluminium salts mixed with a variety of binders and protein sources, such as flour and egg yolk. Alum-tanned leather is technically not tanned, as tannic acid is not used, and the resulting material reverts to rawhide if soaked in water long enough to remove the alum salts.
Rawhide is made by scraping the skin thin, soaking it in lime, and then stretching it while it dries. Like alum-tanning, rawhide is not technically “leather”, but is usually lumped in with the other forms. Rawhide is stiffer and more brittle than other forms of leather; it is primarily found in uses such as drum heads and parchment where it does not need to flex significantly; it is also cut up into cords for use in lacing or stitching and for making many varieties of dog chews.
Leather, usually vegetable-tanned, can be oiled to improve its water resistance. This currying process after tanning supplements the natural oils remaining in the leather itself, which can be washed out through repeated exposure to water. Russia leather was an important international trade good for centuries. Frequent oiling of leather, with mink oil, neatsfoot oil, or a similar material keeps it supple and improves its lifespan dramatically.

Leather with the hair still attached is called “hair-on”.

Leather | What’s the mean of leather

Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhide and skin, often cattle hide. It can be produced at manufacturing scales ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry.

People use leather to make various goods—including clothing (e.g., shoes, hats, jackets, skirts, trousers, and belts), bookbinding, leather wallpaper, and as a furniture covering. It is produced in a wide variety of types and styles, decorated by a wide range of techniques.

Welcome to buy nike shox shoe, nike air max shoe, nike air huarache shoe from nike shox online store.

Notable brands of sneakers

Welcome to buy nike shox shoe, nike air max shoe, nike air huarache shoe from nike shox online store.

As of 2015, brands with global popularity include: Nike, Air Jordan, ASICS, Babolat, Brooks, Converse, DC, Diadora, Dunlop, Ethletic, Feiyue, Fila, Hoka One One, Hummel, Kappa, Karhu, K-Swiss, Keds, Lescon, Merrell, Mizuno, New Balance, Lotto, Adidas, Onitsuka Tiger, PF Flyers, Pony, Pro-Keds, Puma, Reebok, Skechers, Umbro, Under Armour, and Vans.

Types and number of models
High-tops cover the ankle.
Low-tops or oxfords do not cover the ankle.
Mid-cut sneakers are in-between high-tops and low-tops.
Sneaker boots extend to the calf.
Slip-ons like low-tops/oxfords do not cover the ankle and don’t have laces.
Low-top CVO (Circular Vamp Oxford) like low-tops do not cover the ankle but unlike low-tops have a vamp in a circular form and typically 4 to 5 eyelets.
High-top CVO (Circular Vamp Oxford) like high-tops cover the ankle and also have a circular vamp.
A variety of specialised shoes are designed for specific uses:

Approach shoe
Bowling shoes – have harder rubber soles designed specifically not to damage bowling alleys
Cleats
Climbing shoe
Cross trainers
Dance shoe
Football boot
Golf shoes – most have spikes for better grip in grass terrain
Hiking shoes – have stiff upper; offer good ankle support even on uneven terrain and good traction of the sole
Racing flats
Skate shoes
Track shoe
Wrestling shoes
From 1970 (5 models) over 1998 (285 models) to 2012 (3,371), the number of sport shoe models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.

Sneaker culture
Sneakers have become an important part of hip hop (primarily Pumas, Nike, and Adidas) and rock ‘n roll (Converse, Macbeth) cultures since the 1970s. Hip hop artists sign million dollar deals with major brands such as Nike, Adidas, or Puma to promote their shoes.Sneaker collectors, called “sneakerheads”, use sneakers as fashionable items. Artistically-modified sneakers can sell for upwards of $1000 at exclusive establishments like Saks Fifth Avenue. In 2005, a documentary, Just for Kicks, about the sneaker phenomenon and history was released.

Use in sports of sneakers

Welcome to buy nike shox shoe, nike air max shoe, nike air huarache shoe from nike shox online store.

The term ‘athletic shoes’ is typically used for shoes utilized for running in a marathon or half marathon, basketball, and tennis (among others), but tends to exclude shoes for sports played on grass such as association football and rugby football, which are generally known as ‘studs’ or in North America as ‘cleats’.

Attributes of an athletic shoe include a flexible sole, appropriate tread for the function, and ability to absorb impact. As the industry and designs have expanded, the term “athletic shoes” is based more on the design of the bottom of the shoe than the aesthetics of the top of the shoe. Today’s designs include sandals, Mary Janes, and even elevated styles suitable for running, dancing, and jumping.

The shoes themselves are made of flexible compounds, typically featuring a sole made of dense rubber. While the original design was basic, manufacturers have since tailored athletic shoes for their specific purposes. An example of this is the spiked shoe developed for track running. Many of these shoes are made up to very large sizes for athletes with large feet.

Running shoes
Running shoes come in a range of shapes suited to different running styles/abilities. Generally, they are divided by running style: the majority are for heel-toe joggers/runners which are further subdivided into ‘neutral’, ‘overpronation’ and ‘underpronation’. These are constructed with a complex structure of “rubber” with plastic/metal stiffeners to restrict foot movement. More advanced runners tend to wear flatter and flexible shoes, which allow them to run more quickly with greater comfort.

According to the NPD Group, one in four pairs of running shoes that were sold in the United States in 2016 were bought from an online retailer.

The history of Sneakers | Sneakers’ History

Welcome to buy nike shox shoe, nike air max shoe, nike air huarache shoe from nike shox online store.

These shoes acquired the nickname ‘plimsoll’ in the 1870s, derived according to Nicholette Jones’ book The Plimsoll Sensation, from the coloured horizontal band joining the upper to the sole, which resembled the Plimsoll line on a ship’s hull. Alternatively, just like the Plimsoll line on a ship, if water got above the line of the rubber sole, the wearer would get wet.

Plimsolls were widely worn by vacationers and also began to be worn by sportsmen on the tennis and croquet courts for their comfort. Special soles with engraved patterns to increase the surface grip of the shoe were developed, and these were ordered in bulk for the use of the British Army. Athletic shoes were increasingly used for leisure and outdoor activities at the turn of the 20th century – plimsolls were even found with the ill-fated Scott Antarctic expedition of 1911. Plimsolls were made compulsory in schools’ physical education lessons in the UK.

British company J.W. Foster and Sons designed and produced the first shoes designed for running in 1895; the shoes were spiked to allow for greater traction and speed. The company sold its high-quality handmade running shoes to athletes around the world, eventually receiving a contract for the manufacture of running shoes for the British team in the 1924 Summer Olympics – Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell won the 100-m and 400-m events, kitted out with Foster’s running gear.

A pair of white athletic shoes with pink accents
This style of footwear also became prominent in America at the turn of the 20th century, where they were called ‘sneakers’. In 1892, the U.S. Rubber Company introduced the first rubber-soled shoes in the country, sparking a surge in demand and production. The first basketball shoes were designed by Spalding as early as 1907. The market for sneakers grew after World War I, when sports and athletics increasingly became a way to demonstrate moral fiber and patriotism. The U.S. market for sneakers grew steadily as young boys lined up to buy sneakers endorsed by football player Jim Thorpe and Converse All Stars endorsed by basketball player Chuck Taylor.

During the interwar period, athletic shoes began to be marketed for different sports, and differentiated designs were made available for men and women. Athletic shoes were used by competing athletes at the Olympics, helping to popularise athletic shoes among the general public. In 1936, a French brand, Spring Court, marketed the first canvas tennis shoe featuring signature eight ventilation channels on a vulcanised natural rubber sole.

Adolf “Adi” Dassler began producing his own sports shoes in his mother’s wash kitchen in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, after his return from World War I, and went on to establish one of the leading athletic shoe manufacturers, Adidas. He also successfully marketed his shoes to athletes at the 1936 Summer Olympics, which helped cement his good reputation. Business boomed and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes each year before World War II.

Post-War
During the 1950s, leisure opportunities greatly expanded, and children and adolescents began to wear sneakers as school dress codes relaxed. Sneaker sales rose so high, they began to adversely impact on the sales of conventional leather shoes, leading to a fierce advertising war for market share in the late ’50s. In the 1970s, jogging for exercise became increasingly popular, and trainers designed specifically for comfort while jogging sold well. Companies also started to market their products as a lifestyle choice. Soon, shoes were available for football, jogging, basketball, running, etc. Every sport had its own shoe, made possible by podiatrist development of athletic shoe technology.

During the 1990s, shoe companies perfected their fashion and marketing skills. Sports endorsements grew larger, and marketing budgets went through the roof. Sneakers became a fashion statement and definition of identity and personality rather than humble athletic aids.

From 1970 (5 models) over 1998 (285 models) to 2012 (3,371), the number of sport shoe models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.

Sneakers | what about sneakers mean?

Welcome to buy nike shox shoe, nike air max shoe, nike air huarache shoe from nike shox online store.

Sneakers (also known as athletic shoes, tennis shoes, gym shoes, runners, takkies, or trainers) are shoes primarily designed for sports or other forms of physical exercise, but which are now also often used for everyday wear. The term generally describes a type of footwear with a flexible sole made of rubber or synthetic material and an upper part made of leather or synthetic materials. Examples of such shoes include athletic footwear such as: basketball shoes, tennis shoes, cross trainers and other shoes worn for specific sports.

The term “sneakers” is most commonly used in the Northeastern United States and Southern Florida. It is also used in North Carolina, Australia and Canada. The British English equivalent of “sneaker” in its modern form is “trainer”. In some urban areas in the United States, the slang for sneakers is kicks. Other terms include training shoes or trainers (British English), sandshoes, gym boots or joggers (Geordie English in the UK), running shoes, runners or gutties (Canadian English, Australian English and Scottish English), runners in Hiberno-English, sneakers (North American English) and (Australian English), tennis shoes (North American English and Australian English), gym shoes, tennies, sports shoes, sneaks, takkies (South African English and Hiberno-English), rubber shoes (Philippine English) or canvas shoes (Nigerian English).

Plimsolls (British English) are “low tech” athletic shoes, and are also called ‘sneakers’ in American English and ‘daps’ in Welsh English. The word “sneaker” is often attributed to American Henry Nelson McKinney who was an advertising agent for N. W. Ayer & Son. In 1917, he used the term because the rubber sole made the shoe stealthy. The word was already in use at least as early as 1887, as the Boston Journal made reference to “sneakers” as “the name boys give to tennis shoes.” The name “sneakers” originally referred to how quiet the rubber soles were on the ground, in contrast to noisy standard hard leather sole dress shoes. Someone wearing sneakers could “sneak up” on someone while someone wearing standards could not.

Earlier the name “sneaks” had been used by prison inmates to refer to warders because of the rubber-soled shoes they wore.