Nike Shox Gravity Grey Yellow Orange Release Date

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Nike will have a strong lineup of their latest Shox known as the Nike Shoe Gravity. While we have showcased a few, the latest comes highlighted in Grey.

As you can see this pair features Grey mesh across the uppers along with Flywire cables, laces and cinch system. Also used is a lighter shade of Grey which lands on the Nike Swoosh logos. Finishing the look is Orange and Yellow used on the Shox cushioning.

Nike Shox Gravity Grey Yellow Orange Release Date

The Nike Shox Gravity Grey is expected to release at select Nike Sportswear retailers including online at during Spring 2018. Retail price will be $150. Once we learn of additional information we will make sure to update you. For now continue to scroll below to check out more photos which will give you a better look.

Nike Shox Gravity
Spring 2018

Nike Shox NZ EU White/Metallic Silver-Black 501524-103

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It has been quite a while since the Nike Shox NZ made Sneaker News headlines. It’s interesting because this model continues to crank out new colorways with some regularity and has been available on NIKEiD for a good while now. But it’s sort of like the Tuned 1, in the sense that much of the sneakerhead world has been sleeping on all the new drops. This latest style in white and black with a gradient blending them along the eyelets might change that, but possibly only in Europe (much like recent AM Plus pairs) as this looks to be an exclusive drop over there.

VC NIKE SHOX Vince Carter, Classics Revisited: Nike Shox VC (2002)

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Debates will be had and arguments will be made, but there is nobody – not even Michael, Dominique, Shawn, or LeBron – that is a better dunker than Vince Carter. The UNC alumni sprung into the NBA highlight reel almost instantly, pulling off inhumane feats of aerial assaults with a rare and cherished combination of finesse and power, throwing down sweet windmills on everyone in his path. VC went from highlight-reel regular to international superstar in a short span of five months, beginning with his Slam Dunk Contest showing in February of 2000 and his leapfrogging over Frederic Weis during the Sydney Olympics later that year. The one major difference between the February and August occasions was what was on Vince’s feet; during the Dunk Contest, VC rocked the AND1 Tai Chi, but by August, he used his airborne abilities to showcase Nike Shox technology and the Nike Shox BB4. It was a match made in heaven; who better than Vince Carter to represent a technology that propelled the athlete off the ground?

Vince Carter’s allegiance to Nike would come at a major, major price; his new contract with the Swoosh rewarded him a cool $30 million, but roughly half of that amount went to Puma to pay off a ‘breach of contract’ fee of sorts. It was a price Vince was willing to pay as the path down Nike would certainly lead to greener pastures, as the Nike Shox VC line would debut not even two years later (Christmas 2001, to be exact). Nike introduced the Shox VC with the ‘Dr. Funk’ campaign – a fictional story dating back to 1975 where a ‘new school cat’ with a strange pair of vinyl and zippered shoes would dominate the old school ballers with ease. The Shox line would go one for five more signature models, and although Vince no longer has a signature shoe to call his own, he still rocks Nike Shox footwear on the court (but you can catch him in the Hyperposite this season). More of this classic era of Nike Basketball below, and you can bet we’ll revisit another Shox model during this week’s Classics Revisited!

Nike Shox VC
Metallic Silver/Black-Varsity Royal

Black/Varsity Red-Metallic-Silver

Varsity Red/Black-Metallic Silver

Midnight Navy/Metallic Gold

Nike Shox News – Nike Shox BB4

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Nike Shox BB4

Nike Basketball’s releases over the past 20 years represent the definition and redefinition of the hoops shoe. A 20-year work-in-progress. In 2000, the Nike Shox BB4 was born

“The objective was for the technology itself to be the focal point — let it be the hero.”- Eric Avar

Sometimes imagination can be tethered by manufacturing limitation. Nike Shox was already a 20-year-old concept at the time of the BB4’s release. The idea was too ahead of the curve, necessitating foam that hadn’t been invented yet. It resurfaced at the tail end of the 1990s, piquing the interest of Eric Avar and the design team as a visually expressive technology with a significant performance value.

By letting those newly engineered Nike Shox do the talking, Eric knew that there was no point trying to downplay the sole on a shoe like the BB4. “I believe every shoe should have one bold, iconic expression to it. Sometimes you can get away with two. Any more than that and it gets too busy and you just don’t know where to focus, functionally or aesthetically.”

The Nike Shox BB4’s look was informed by its space age concept: a rocket and booster-like appearance was prepped for blastoff and served to amplify the explosive potential of the columns. The upper was designed for intergalactic exploration too, as Avar and the others at mission control researched astronaut apparel. “The upper was inspired from some space suits at the time. We kept it simple and understated, but modern with a slight iridescence and reflectivity.”

Vince Carter’s iconic dunk of death over a seven-footer while wearing a pair secured his legendary status and drove home the power of the Nike Shox system. Off he went into the stadium atmosphere and we had liftoff. You can’t synthesize that kind of moment, but maybe, just maybe, those columns gave him the confidence to pull off the ultimate “posterized” dunk.

In celebration of the summer of basketball, we’re revisiting our most iconic Nike Basketball shoes of the past 20 years. Learn more.


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• Cushlon midsole works with a Nike Zoom unit in the forefoot to provide a great blend of responsive cushioning and durability.• Nike Shox system in a four-column configuration at the heel blends the responsiveness of Nike Shox columns with plush Max Air cushioning for superior impact protection and a smooth transition.• Strategically-placed, stitch-free overlays provide great lockdown over the footbed for a snug, supportive fit. INSIDE SCOOP

Nike Experience+ combines the best attributes and key learnings from Nike’s top running shoes (Cushlon midsole, Max Air cushioning, Nike Zoom cushioning, Natural Motion Engineering, Nike+ ready and a flexible, stitch-free midfoot saddle just to name a few) to provide Nike Shox cushioning in a technical running platform, for an overall amazing running experience.UPPER

• Expansive use of mesh material provides exceptional breathability and comfort. • Strategically-placed, stitch-free overlays provide great lockdown over the footbed for a snug, supportive fit. • Molded EVA sockliner features Fitsole geometry to boost comfort, fit and support.MIDSOLE• Full-length Cushlon midsole provides a great blend of responsive cushioning and durability.• Forefoot Nike Zoom unit provides lightweight, responsive cushioning.• Nike Shox system in a four-column configuration at the heel blends the responsiveness of Nike Shox columns with plush Max Air cushioning for superior impact protection and a smooth transition from heel strike through midstance.• Highly-articulated Pebax® top- and bottom-plates allow each Nike Shox column to respond independently to help distribute impact pressure evenly across the heel.• Pebax top-plate acts as a midfoot shank, enhancing support under the midfoot while still allowing for a degree of torsional rotation to unlock the foot’s natural stabilizing mechanisms. OUTSOLE

• Abrasion-resistant, BRS 1000 carbon rubber under the crash pad provides enhanced durability in this high-wear area.• Deep flex grooves improve flexibility and help provide a smooth, seamless transition from heel strike through toe-off.• Environmentally preferred rubber in a modified Waffle outsole configuration through the forefoot provide durable, multi-surface traction and add a measure of cushioning.

NIKE SHOX TURMOIL | nike shox Six-column

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Six-column midsole configuration provides adaptive cushioning.

-Open-mesh upper enhances ventilation for comfort and breathability. -Strategically placed synthetic-leather overlays enhance support for a snug, secure fit. -Injected TPU toe-tip enhances durability and protection in this high-wear area. -Molded EVA sockliner conforms to the shape of your foot for comfort and underfoot support.

-Nike Shox technology in a 6-column configuration provides adaptive cushioning for impact protection and a smoother, more natural transition from heel strike through midstance. -Beveled, lateral heel puck provides impact protection and a smooth touch down while also helping to slow the rate of pronation. -The top, sculpted Pebax®, Nike Shox plate distributes impact pressure more evenly across the heel, while also adding support around the rearfoot. -Pebax bottom plate is engineered to allow each column to respond more independently on impact, resulting in a smoother transition from contact to midstance. -Full-length Cushlon midsole provides a great blend of responsive cushioning and durability.

-BRS 1000 carbon rubber for high abrasion resistance under the heel. -Solid rubber in a Waffle Fill configuration through the forefoot for multi-surface traction and durability and added cushioning. -Deep, wide flex grooves along the length and width of the forefoot are aligned to encourage a more neutral, efficient range of motion through toe-off.

Leather crafting

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Leather crafting or simply Leathercraft is the practice of making leather into craft objects or works of art, using shaping techniques, coloring techniques or both.


Leather dyeing usually involves the use of spirit- or alcohol-based dyes where alcohol quickly gets absorbed into moistened leather, carrying the pigment deep into the surface. “Hi-liters” and “Antiquing” stains can be used to add more definition to patterns. These have pigments that will break away from the higher points of a tooled piece and so pooling in the background areas give nice contrasts. Leaving parts unstained also provides a type of contrast.

Alternatives to spirit stains might include a number of options. Shoe polish can be used to dye and preserve leather. Oils such as neatsfoot or linseed can be applied to preserve leather but darkens them. A wax paste more often than not serves as the final coat.

Sweat and grime will also stain and ‘antique’ leather over time. Gun holsters, saddlebags, wallets and canteens used by cowboys and buckaroos were rarely colored in the Old West. The red, brown, and black tones develop naturally through handling and as the oiled leathers absorb the rays of the desert sun.

Due to changing environmental laws, alcohol-based dyes are soon to be unavailable. when? where? There are currently water-based alternatives available, although they tend not to work as well.

Leather painting differs from leather dyeing in that paint remains only on the surface while dyes are absorbed into the leather. Due to this difference, leather painting techniques are generally not used on items that can or must bend nor on items that receive friction, such as belts and wallets because under these conditions, the paint is likely to crack and flake off. However, latex paints can be used to paint such flexible leather items. In the main though, a flat piece of leather, backed with a stiff board is ideal and common, though three-dimensional forms are possible so long as the painted surface remains secured.

Acrylic paint is a common medium, often painted on tooled leather pictures, backed with wood or cardboard, and then framed. Unlike photographs, leather paintings are displayed without a glass cover, to prevent mold.

Main article: Leather carving
Leather carving entails using metal implements to compress moistened leather in such a way as to give a three-dimensional appearance to a two-dimensional surface. The surface of the leather is not intended to be cut through, as would be done in filigree.

The main tools used to “carve” leather include: swivel knife, veiner, beveler, pear shader, seeder, cam, and background tool. The swivel knife is held similar to pencil and drawn along the leather to outline patterns. The other tools are punch-type implements struck with a wooden, nylon or rawhide mallet. The object is to add further definition with them to the cut lines made by the swivel knife.

In the United States and Mexico, the western floral style, known as “Sheridan Style”, of carving leather predominates. Usually, these are stylized pictures of acanthis or roses. California, Texas, and a few other styles are common. By far the most preeminent carver in the United States was Al Stohlman. His patterns and methods have been embraced by many hobbyists, scout troops, reenacters, and craftsmen.

Leather stamping involves the use of shaped implements (stamps) to create an imprint onto a leather surface, often by striking the stamps with a mallet.

Commercial stamps are available in various designs, typically geometric or representative of animals. Most stamping is performed on vegetable tanned leather that has been dampened with water, as the water makes the leather softer and able to be compressed by the design being pressed or stamped into it using a press. After the leather has been stamped, the design stays on the leather as it dries out, but it can fade if the leather becomes wet and is flexed. To make the impressions last longer, the leather is conditioned with oils and fats to make it waterproof and prevent the fibers from deforming.

Leather shaping or molding consists of soaking a piece of leather in hot or room temperature water to greatly increase pliability and then shaping it by hand or with the use of objects or even molds as forms. As the leather dries it stiffens and holds its shape. Carving and stamping may be done prior to molding. Dying however must take place after molding, as the water soak will remove much of the color. Molding has become popular among hobbyists whose crafts are related to fantasy, goth/steampunk culture and cosplay.

Two well known pieces of molded leather are part of the funerary achievements of Edward, the Black Prince, the heraldic crest and shield.
Laser cutting/etching
Carbon dioxide lasers cut through leather very smoothly, and at low power a laser cutter can etch detailed designs into leather to any desired depth.

Perforation (Latin perforo -.. Knocking) – the result of punching that is provided for the manufacture of a large number of regularly arranged apertures of regular shape in the sheet and other material. A decorative technique that is used to connect two sheets of leather or to decorate them.

Pyrography(purogravure) on leather is the art with using a hot needle to make a drawing on leather. Under the influence of heat the leather gets darker shades which subsequently become a complete picture. One of the best ways to transfer complex patterns such as portraits.

Leather production processes

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The leather manufacturing process is divided into three sub-processes: preparatory stages, tanning and crusting. All true leathers will undergo these sub-processes. A further sub-process, surface coating may be added into the sequence. The list of operations that leathers undergo vary with the type of leather.

Production management
The leather making process is in general restricted to batch processing, but if the surface coating sub-process is added then some continuous processing can be included. The operation flow has to follow the preparatory → tanning → crusting → surface coating sub-process order without deviation, but some of the sub-processes can be omitted to make certain leathers (or partially tanned/ untanned products).

Preparatory stages
The preparatory stages are when the hide/skin is prepared for tanning. During the preparatory stages many of the unwanted raw skin components are removed. Many options for pretreatment of the skin exist. Not all of the options may be performed. Preparatory stages may include:

preservation- the hide/skin is treated with a method which renders it temporarily imputrescible.
soaking – water for purposes of washing or rehydration is reintroduced.
liming – unwanted proteins and “opening up” is achieved.
unhairing – the majority of hair is removed.
fleshing – subcutaneous material is removed.
splitting – the hide/skin is cut into two or more horizontal layers.
reliming – the hide/skin is further treated to achieve more “opening up” or more protein removal.
deliming – liming and unhairing chemicals are removed from the pelt.
bating – proteolytic proteins are introduced to the skin to remove further proteins and to assist with softening of the pelt.
degreasing – natural fats/oils are stripped or as much as is possible from the hide/skin.
frizing – physical removal of the fat layer inside the skin. Also similar to Slicking.
bleaching – chemical modification of dark pigments to yield a lighter coloured pelt.
pickling – lowering of the pH value to the acidic region. Must be done in the presence of salts. Pickling is normally done to help with the penetration of certain tanning agents, e.g., chromium (and other metals), aldehydic and some polymeric tanning agents
depickling – raising of the pH out of the acidic region to assist with penetration of certain tanning agents

Tanning is the process that converts the protein of the raw hide or skin into a stable material which will not putrefy and is suitable for a wide variety of end applications. The principal difference between raw hides and tanned hides is that raw hides dry out to form a hard inflexible material that can putrefy when re-wetted (wetted back), while tanned material dries out to a flexible form that does not become putrid when wetted back. A large number of different tanning methods and materials can be used; the choice is ultimately dependent on the end application of the leather. The most commonly used tanning material is chromium, which leaves the leather, once tanned, a pale blue colour (due to the chromium), this product is commonly called “wet blue”.

The acidity of hides once they have finished pickling will typically be between pH of 2.8-3.2. At this point the hides are loaded in a drum and immersed in a float containing the tanning liquor. The hides are allowed to soak (while the drum slowly rotates about its axle) and the tanning liquor slowly penetrates through the full substance of the hide. Regular checks will be made to see the penetration by cutting the cross section of a hide and observing the degree of penetration. Once an even degree of penetration is observed, the pH of the float is slowly raised in a process called basification. This basification process fixes the tanning material to the leather, and the more tanning material fixed, the higher the hydrothermal stability and increased shrinkage temperature resistance of the leather. The pH of the leather when chrome tanned would typically finish somewhere between 3.8-4.2.

Crusting is when the hide/skin is thinned, retanned and lubricated. Often a coloring operation is included in the crusting sub-process. The chemicals added during crusting have to be fixed in place. The culmination of the crusting sub-process is the drying and softening operations. Crusting may include the following operations:

wetting back – semi-processed leather is rehydrated.
sammying – 45-55%(m/m) water is squeezed out the leather.
splitting – the leather is split into one or more horizontal layers.
shaving – the leather is thinned using a machine which cuts leather fibres off.
neutralisation – the pH of the leather is adjusted to a value between 4.5 and 6.5.
retanning – additional tanning agents are added to impart properties.
dyeing – the leather is coloured.
fatliquoring – fats/oils and waxes are fixed to the leather fibres.
filling – heavy/dense chemicals that make the leather harder and heavier are added.
stuffing – fats/oils and waxes are added between the fibres.
stripping – superficially fixed tannins are removed.
whitening – the colour of the leather is lightened.
fixation – all unbound chemicals are chemically bonded/trapped or removed from the leather
setting – area, grain flatness are imparted and excess water removed.
drying – the leather is dried to various moisture levels (commonly 14-25%).
conditioning – water is added to the leather to a level of 18-28%.
softening – physical softening of the leather by separating the leather fibres.
buffing – abrasion of the surfaces of the leather to reduce nap or grain defects.
Surface coating
For some leathers a surface coating is applied. Tanners refer to this as finishing. Finishing operations may include:

roller coating
curtain coating
combing (hair-on)
Environmental impact
In addition to the other environmental impacts of leather, the production processes have a high environmental impact, most notably due to:

the heavy use of polluting chemicals in the tanning process
air pollution due to the transformation process (hydrogen sulfide during dehairing and ammonia during deliming, solvent vapours).
One tonne of hide or skin generally leads to the production of 20 to 80 m3 of turbid and foul-smelling wastewater, including chromium levels of 100–400 mg/L, sulfide levels of 200–800 mg/L and high levels of fat and other solid wastes, as well as notable pathogen contamination. Pesticides are also often added for hide conservation during transport. With solid wastes representing up to 70% of the wet weight of the original hides, the tanning process comes at a considerable strain on water treatment installations.

Tanning is especially polluting in countries where environmental norms are lax, such as in India – the world’s 3d largest producer and exporter of leather. To give an example of an efficient pollution prevention system, chromium loads per produced tonne are generally abated from 8 kg to 1.5 kg. VOC emissions are typically reduced from 30 kg/t to 2 kg/t in a properly managed facility. Very clearly, the process remains highly polluting all the same. A review of the total pollution load decrease achievable according to the United Nations Industrial Development Organization posts precise data on the abatement achievable through industrially proven low-waste advanced methods, while noting that « Even though the chrome pollution load can be decreased by 94% on introducing advanced technologies, the minimum residual load 0.15 kg/t raw hide can still cause difficulties when using landfills and composting sludge from wastewater treatment on account of the regulations currently in force in some countries. »

In Kanpur, the self-proclaimed “Leather City of World” and a city of 3 million people on the banks of the river Ganges, pollution levels were so high that, despite an industry crisis, the pollution control board has decided to seal 49 high-polluting tanneries out of 404 in July 2009. In 2003 for instance, the main tannery’s effluent disposal unit was dumping 22 tonnes of chromium-laden solid waste per day in the open.

The higher cost associated to the treatment of effluents as compared to untreated effluent discharging leads to environmental dumping to reduce costs. For instance, in Croatia in 2001, proper pollution abatment cost 70-100 USD/t of raw hides processed against 43 USD/t for irresponsible behaviour.

No general study seems to exist, but the current news is rife with documented examples of untreated effluent discharge. In November 2009 for instance, it was discovered that one of Uganda’s main leather producing companies directly dumped its waste water in a wetland adjacent to Lake Victoria.

From other animals – Leather

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Today, most leather is made of cattle skin, but many exceptions exist. Lamb and deerskin are used for soft leather in more expensive apparel. Deer and elkskin are widely used in work gloves and indoor shoes. Pigskin is used in apparel and on seats of saddles. Buffalo, goat, alligator, snake, ostrich, kangaroo, ox, and yak skins may also be used for leather.

Kangaroo leather is used to make items that must be strong and flexible. It is the material most commonly used in bullwhips. Some motorcyclists favor kangaroo leather for motorcycle leathers because of its light weight and abrasion resistance. Kangaroo leather is also used for falconry jesses, soccer footwear, and boxing speed bags. At different times in history, leather made from more exotic skins has been considered desirable. For this reason, certain species of snakes and crocodiles have been hunted.

Although originally raised for their feathers in the 19th century, ostriches are now more popular for both meat and leather. Different processes produce different finishes for many applications, i.e., upholstery, footwear, automotive products, accessories, and clothing. Ostrich leather is currently used by many major fashion houses such as Hermès, Prada, Gucci, and Louis Vuitton. Ostrich leather has a characteristic “goose bump” look because of the large follicles where the feathers grew.

In Thailand, stingray leather is used in wallets and belts. Sting ray leather is tough and durable. The leather is often dyed black and covered with tiny round bumps in the natural pattern of the back ridge of an animal. These bumps are then usually dyed white to highlight the decoration. Stingray rawhide is also used as grips on Chinese swords, Scottish basket hilted swords, and Japanese katanas. Stingray leather is also used for high abrasion areas in motorcycle racing leathers (especially in gloves, where its high abrasion resistance helps prevent wear through in the event of an accident.)

Types of Leather

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In general, leather is sold in these four forms:

Full-grain leather refers to hides that have not been sanded, buffed, or snuffed (as opposed to top-grain or corrected leather) to remove imperfections (or natural marks) on the surface of the hide. The grain remains allowing the fiber strength and durability. The grain also has breathability, resulting in less moisture from prolonged contact. Rather than wearing out, it develops a patina during its expected useful lifetime. High quality leather furniture and footwear are often made from full-grain leather. Full-grain leathers are typically available in two finish types: aniline, semi-aniline.
Top-grain leather (the most common type in high-end leather products) is the second-highest quality. It has had the “split” layer separated away, making it thinner and more pliable than full-grain. Its surface has been sanded and a finish coat added, which produces a colder, plastic feel with less breathability, and it does not develop a natural patina. It is typically less expensive and has greater stain resistance than full-grain leather if the finish remains unbroken.
Corrected-grain leather is any leather that has had an artificial grain applied to its surface. The hides used to create corrected leather do not meet the standards for use in creating vegetable-tanned or aniline leather. The imperfections are corrected or sanded off, and an artificial grain embossed into the surface and dressed with stain or dyes. Most corrected-grain leather is used to make pigmented leather as the solid pigment helps hide the corrections or imperfections. Corrected grain leathers can mainly be bought as two finish types: semi-aniline and pigmented.
Split leather is leather created from the fibrous part of the hide left once the top-grain of the rawhide has been separated from the hide. During the splitting operation, the top-grain and drop split are separated. The drop split can be further split (thickness allowing) into a middle split and a flesh split. In very thick hides, the middle split can be separated into multiple layers until the thickness prevents further splitting. Split leather then has an artificial layer applied to the surface of the split and is embossed with a leather grain (bycast leather). Splits are also used to create suede. The strongest suedes are usually made from grain splits (that have the grain completely removed) or from the flesh split that has been shaved to the correct thickness. Suede is “fuzzy” on both sides. Manufacturers use a variety of techniques to make suede from full-grain. A reversed suede is a grained leather that has been designed into the leather article with the grain facing away from the visible surface. It is not considered a true suede.[3]
Less-common leathers include:

Buckskin or brained leather is a tanning process that uses animal brains or other fatty materials to alter the leather. The resulting supple, suede-like hide is usually smoked heavily to prevent it from returning to a rawhide state, if wetted. It is easier to soften, and helps repel leather-eating bugs.
Patent leather is leather that has been given a high-gloss finish. Inventor Seth Boyden developed the original process in Newark, New Jersey in 1818. Patent leather usually has a plastic coating.
Fish leather is popular for its motifs and its pigmentation. Mainly used for making shoes and bags, the fish skin is tanned like other animal skins.[4] The species used include salmon, perch, sturgeon, etc.
Salmon : farmed in Iceland and Norway, salmon skin has fine scales. Its strength and elegant look make it the most popular fish leather.
Perch : from the Nile, its skin is recognizable with large, round and soft scales
Wolffish : smooth, without scales, with dark spots, and stripes due to the friction of marine rocks
Cod : finer scales than salmon, but more varied texture, sometimes smooth and sometimes rough
Sturgeon : known for its eggs (caviar), its leather is quite expensive
Eel : without scales, its skin is shiny
Tilapia : originally from Africa and farmed in many places, tilapia leather is beautiful, with resistant qualities similar to salmon and perch[5]
Shagreen is also known as stingray skin/leather. Applications used in furniture production date as far back as the art deco period. The word “shagreen” originates from France. It is known as the most difficult leather to work due to dished scales of the animal, and it is one of the most expensive leathers.
Shark is covered with small, close-set tubercles, making it very tough. Shark skin handbags were once in vogue, but interest has fallen as the material and production costs is very high. Moreover, this skin is more difficult to work. (Do not confuse with sharkskin, a woven textile product.
Vachetta leather is used in the trimmings of luggage and handbags. The leather is left untreated and is therefore susceptible to water and stains. Sunlight makes the natural leather darken in shade (develop a patina).
Slink is leather made from the skin of unborn calves. It is particularly soft and is valued for making gloves.
Deerskin is a tough, water-resistant leather, possibly due to the animal’s adaptations to its thorny and thicket-filled habitats.[citation needed] Deerskin has been used by many societies, including indigenous Americans. Most modern deerskin is no longer procured from the wild, with deer farms breeding the animals specifically for the purpose of their skins. Large quantities are still tanned from wild deer hides in historic tanning towns such as Gloversville and Johnstown in upstate New York. Deerskin is used in jackets and overcoats, martial arts equipment such as kendo bogu, as well as personal accessories such as handbags and wallets.
Goatskin is soft but tough, and is used for items such as thorn-resistant gardener’s gloves.
Nubuck is top-grain cattle hide leather that has been sanded or buffed on the grain side, or outside, to give a slight nap of short protein fibers, producing a velvet-like surface.
Russia leather is a particular form of bark-tanned cow leather. It is distinguished by an oiling step, after tanning, where birch oil is worked into the leather to make it particularly hard-wearing, flexible and resistant to water.
There are two other types of leather commonly used in specialty products, such as briefcases, wallets, and luggage:

Belting leather is a full-grain leather originally used in driving pulley belts and other machinery. It is found on the surface of briefcases, portfolios, and wallets, and can be identified by its thick, firm feel and smooth finish. Belting leather is generally a heavy-weight of full-grain, vegetable-tanned leather.
Napa leather is chrome-tanned and is soft and supple. It is commonly found in wallets, toiletry kits, and other personal leather goods.
The following are not “true” organic leathers, but are materials that contain leather fiber. Depending on jurisdiction, they may still be labeled as “Genuine Leather”, even though the consumer generally can only see the outer layer of the material and can’t actually see any of the leather content:

Bonded leather or reconstituted leather is an economical material that uses leftover organic leather (from tanneries or workshops) that are shredded and bonded together with polyurethane or latex on to a fiber sheet. The varying degree of organic leather in the mix (10% to 90%) affects the smell and texture. Its reduced cost makes it popular for furniture upholstery, especially for commercial furniture that requires durability—though durability can vary widely depending on the formulation.
Bycast leather is a split leather with a layer of polyurethane laminated to the surface and then embossed. Bycast was originally made for the shoe industry, and later adopted by the furniture industry. The original formula created by Bayer was strong but expensive. The result is a material that is slightly stiffer but cheaper than top-grain leather but has a much more consistent texture. Because its surface is completely covered in plastic, is easier to clean and maintain, but is not easily repaired.